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Lesson 1 The Islamic Judgment Concerning the Actions of the Mukallaf

The Islamic Judgments are divided into seven (7) types:



The obligatory (wajib), recommended (mandub), prohibited (haram), disliked (makruh), permissible (mubah), valid (sahih), and invalid (batil).







The Obligatory (Wajib): This is also called the Fard. It is that the doer of which will receive reward and the neglector of which deserves punishment. This in turn is divided into two subdivisions: the personal obligation (fard ^ayn) and the communal obligation (fard kifayah).



The Personal Obligation (Fard ^Ayn): This is what is obligatory upon every accountable (mukallaf) person, like the five prayers.



The Communal Obligation (Fard Kifayah): This is an obligation. If some perform it, then others would be relieved from it. Examples are: the congregational prayer (Jama^ah), memorizing the entire book of the Qur’an, and working in the beneficial handiwork that the Muslims need.



The Recommended (Mandub): The one who performs this category earns reward, but the one who leaves it out does not deserve punishment. Examples are: the recommended (sunnah) prayers, and using the siwak.



The Prohibited (Haram): The one who leaves this out because he is following the orders of Allah earns reward, and the one who performs it deserves punishment. Examples are: drinking alcohol, taking interest, lying, stealing, harming one's parents, and smoking cigarettes when harmful to one's health.



The Disliked (Makruh): It is that which if one who leaves out, one earns reward and if one performs, one will not be punished. An example is: wasting water during wudu' or ghusl.



The Permissible (Mubah): This is that which if one does, one does not earn reward and if one leaves out, one will not be punished. Examples are: having extravagance in halal (lawful) clothes and food, wearing wool instead of cotton, and eating chickpeas instead of beans.



The Valid (Sahih): This is what is in accordance with the rules of Islam and has satisfied all the conditions and integrals.



The Invalid (Batil or Fasid): This is the opposite of the valid, i.e., it has not satisfied the conditions and integrals.



Questions:



How many types of Islamic Judgments are there?



What is the obligation (wajib)? What is it also called?



How many types of obligations are there?



What is the personal obligation (fard ^ayn)? Give an example.



What is the communal obligation (fard kifayah)? Give an example.



What is the recommended (mandub)? Give an example.



What is the prohibited (haram)? Give an example.



What is the disliked (makruh)? Give an example.



What is the permissible (mubah)? Give an example.



What is a valid (sahih) act of worship?



What is an invalid (batil or fasid) act of worship?




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